Павел Масленікаў

Павел Масленікаў

Выдавец: Беларусь
Памер: 83с.
Мінск 2013
19.21 МБ

 

Аўтаматычна згенераваная тэкставая версія, можа быць з памылкамі і не поўная.
Дивной по настроению и светоносности представляется работа «Одинокий парус» (1973). Это поэтический образ Минского моря. Лучи заходящего солнца отражаются в спокойном, но полном движения, метаморфоз, игры цвета, умиротворенной калейдоскопичности состоянии минского водохранилища. В панораме обзора вырисовываются благоустроенный пляж, очертания новой в то время гостиницы «Юность». На
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первом плане — кромка каменистого берега. Но главное, что привлекает внимание, — это поверхность воды. Тонкость и прозрачность красочного слоя, подвижность и прерывистость коротких горизонтальных мазков-штрихов прозрачно-приглушенных (голубого, розового, изумрудного, зеленоватого) цветов создают ощущение теплоты, мягкости, свежести, тихой радости. Белый парус едва колышется в спокойной воде, отбрасывая свое зыбкое отражение. Цветовой луч-звук дышит, светится, звенит, пространство наполнено светом, воздухом и легким бризом.
В небесной стихии художника восхищали облака. Всматриваясь в заоблачную высь, он всегда видел и отмечал их непревзойденную красоту, каждый раз восклицая: «Смотри! Какие облака! Вот бы «уловить» это состояние и передать на холсте!»
Грузные, плотные, объемные облака нависли в пейзаже «Над полями» (1992). Их сконцентрированная мощь завораживает и как бы раскрывает, дешифрует сезонное время позднего лета, созревающей хлебной нивы, вобравшей в себя животворящие истоки небесной и земной силы. Сквозь бесконечно изменчивые облака художник наблюдал знойный день и позднюю осень, вечер на Припяти и заколосившуюся рожь.
Знаковой по силе образного обобщения в его творчестве стала картина «Земля белорусская» (1973). Ввысь бесконечно изменчивых облаков устремляется обелиск Кургана Славы, воспевающий героизм славянских народов.
Последней, незавершенной работой П.В. Масленикова стала картина, изображающая небесную заоблачную высоту. Густые многослойные облака высвечивают едва заметную, лишь намеченную кистью художника фигуру ангела, от которого исходят потоки лучей, соединяющих небо и землю, вселяющих веру в человека, художника, его творческие «миры».
Ко входу в Могилевский областной художественный музей, который с 1997 года носит имя Павла Масленикова, ведет небольшой бульвар. Он связывает музей с центральной улицей города — Первомайской. Именно здесь, в окружении березок, которые так любил писать художник, уста
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новлен бюст. Его автор — скульптор В.М. Летун. Владимир Михайлович воссоздал в бронзе собирательный образ художника, которому не были присущи пафос и официоз. Спокойное выражение лица, берет, распахнутый ворот свитера. Взгляд устремлен на родной город, в окрестностях которого он родился, провел школьные годы и в который вернулся, подарив землякам большое собрание своих живописных работ, где создал неповторимые, чарующие образы родной земли, свой особый мир, в котором реальность переплетается с поэзией, живопись наполняется музыкальностью, экспрессия приближается к театрализации.
Павел Маслеников оставил богатое творческое наследие. Судьбу большинства своих работ художник решил еще при жизни — передал в дар около 140 живописных полотен областному музею. В своем посвящении он написал: «Роднай магілёўскай зямлі, дарагім незабыўным бацькам маім, мудрым і працавітым землякам — з нізкім наклонам і сыноўскай удзячнасцю».
Вера Прокопцова
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avel Vasilyevich Maslenikau (01.01.1914—06.09.1995) is one of the renowned Belarusian masters of landscape painting and scenic painting in the XX cent. Being a scenic designer, landscape painter, art historian and teacher, follower of the classic traditions in art, he lived by the process of the creative work itself and valued mastery and professionalism.
The activity of Pavel Maslenikau, the Honoured Art Worker of the BSSR, the Peoples Artist of Belarus, Candidate of Art History, Associate Professor and the laureate of the State Award of Belarus, was directed to the creation of the theatre culture, the national system of education and science in the sphere of art, the development of Belarusian painting.
The artist was born in the village of Nizkaya Vulitsa that later was incorporated into the village of Knyazitsy, which is situated in 12 km from Mahileu. His parents — Vasily Rygoravich and Marya Yafimauna — were well-to-do farmers who knew well the job of grain growers and who brought up four children: the eldest daughter Euphrosyne and sons Tsimafey, Pavel, Uladzimer. He finished four classes of primary school in the village of Knyazhitsy. An excursion with the teacher to the Mahileu Museum became the most vivid memory of that time. He saw the works of V. Surikov, I. Repin, D. Levitsky and I. Aivazovsky for the first time there.
When he was ten years old, the future artist moved to Mahileu, where he studied at comprehensive school № 3 and later at Mahileu Pedagogical College and in Mahileu Pedagogical Institute at the Literature Faculty. He met E Parkhomenka, a wonderful teacher and painter, at the college. F. Parkhomenka
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graduated from Vilno Drawing School where he took lessons from I. Trutnev. Also, at the college composer N. Churkin worked as a teacher of Music, Singing and Methodology. He created a great choir and orchestra of folk instruments that was joined by P. Maslenikau.
The studies at Vitebsk Art College (1934-1938) became the basis of his work. In the 1930s, famous artists following the realistic method in painting (V. Khrustaleu, I. Akhremchyk, L. Leitman, V. Volkau, M. Lebedeu, M. Ende, E Fogt, M. Kerzin) taught there. It was them who formed P. Maslenikau as an artist. He remained faithful to the realistic art all his life. It reflected not only in his works but also in his researches in art history.
At the same time the craving for music did not leave P. Maslenikau. Playing at the orchestra was one of his favourite pastimes. Such inner unity of music and painting in the soul of a young man was likely to determine his further work at the Belarusian State Theatre of Opera and Ballet where he came in 24. During his fourth year, Nikita-Napaleon Aleksandravich Karovin, the art director of the Belarusian State Theatre of Opera and Ballet, visited the college. He chose Pavel Maslenikau to work as a scenic designer. Sergei Filipavich Nikalaeu, a leading scenic painter of that time, led P. Maslenikau to his independent work. Sergei Nikalaeu created the national school of scenic painters and Pavel Vasilyevich treated him with great respect.
But the creative work of the artist was interrupted by the war. It caught the young artist during his vacation in Tuapse at the Caucas. He was mobilized into a communication unit near Moscow and at the end of war he was sent to the Turkish border to Iran.
He returned to the Theatre of Opera and Ballet in 1946 and worked there till the beginning of the 1960s. Pavel Vasilyevich was one of the first generation of Belarusian scenic painters in the republican national theatres in the Soviet time. He designed 16 operas, 7 ballets and more than 10 dramatic productions. P. Maslenikau had a chance to work with the European classics (Tosca (1950) by G. Puccini, Pagliacci (1951) by R. Leoncavallo, Lakme (1952) by L. Delibes, Fra Diavolo (1955) by D. Auber, The Gypsy Baron (1960) by J. Strauss, A Masked Ball
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(1961) by G. Verdi, La Gioconda (1962) by A. Ponchielli) and with the works of Russian composers — The Demon (1951) by A. Rubinstein, Iolanta (1952) by R Tchaikovsky. He designed operas written by Slavic composers, their staging symbolizing the centuries-old bond of peoples — The Sold Bride (1949) by B. Smetana, A Zaporozhian Beyond the Danube (1951) by S. Gulak-Artemovsky, The Haunted Manor (1952) by S. Monyushko. He also worked on the Soviet repertoire — The Young Guard (1954) by Y. Meitus and on the production of the Belarusian national operas — The Valley of Happiness (1957) by Y. Belzatsky, Mikhas Padgorny (1957) by E. Tsikotsky, Bright Dawn (1958) by A. Turankou.
While working at the opera theatre, Pavel Vasilyevich studied at the Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture named after I. Repin (1948-1953) at the Theory of Art and Art History Faculty. After graduation from the institute he became a Ph.D. candidate of the Institute of Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR. Mikhal Syargeevich Katser was a scientific advisor of the almost forty-year-old candidate.
Having a theoretical education and carrying out researches in art history, the artist wanted to comprehend the practice of the performance design. He thought that “...study standards are very important. A study, as well as a painting, should be artistically independent. A scenic designer like an easel painter should paint from life every day, improve his skills, enrich himself with new impressions”1. Quoting I.E. Repin “Paint is a thought” he said: “Colour is one of the most powerful means of a scenic designer. To be able to find a colour tone of a painting, which would blend with an orchestral score, to find the colour development in a plot, rising power of its intensity, its climax means to express an emotional and psychological atmosphere of a performance”2.
Researches of P.V Maslenikau in art history concerned not only set design, but also painting, theme paintings, the creative work of different artists, the
1 Маспенікаў П. Афармленне спектакля II Літаратура і мастацтва. — 1952. — 1 ліст. — С. 3.
2 Ibid.
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theory of genres in fine art. They were articles in periodicals, journals, in the five-volume Encyclopedia of Literature and Art of Belarus and six-volume History of Belarusian Art. Authors of the latter book were nominated to the State Award in 1996, but Pavel Maslenikau was awarded posthumously.
The beginning of the 1960s was the most intensive life period for Pavel Vasilyevich. The thesis defence for the degree of Candidate of Arts, the work as the Head of the Artists’ Union of the BSSR, the defence of an idea and the opening itself of the Republican Boarding School of Music and Fine Art in 1962 (now it is called the upper secondary school and college and named after his teacher I. Akhremchik) — all those events happened simultaneously with the premiere of La Gioconda by A. Ponchielli and the preparation for the second personal exhibition of the artist dedicated to his 50th anniversary (the first exhibition had been held in 1954). A mere enumeration of all those events that happened in such a short period of time reveals the significance of the work of P.V. Maslenikau for the development of Belarusian artistic culture.